Indian Botanical Garden situated in Shibpur, Howrah near Kolkata is the largest botanical garden of India. The gardens exhibit a wide variety of rare plants and have a collection of over 12,000 specimens spread over 109 hectares. The garden is renowned for The Great Banyan an enormous banyan tree (Ficus bengalhensis) that is considered to be the largest tree in the world. It has a circumference of more than 330 metres. The gardens are also famous for their rich collection of orchids, bamboos, palms, and plants of the screw pine genus. Indian Botanical Gardens were previously known as Royal Botanic Gardens and were founded in 1786 by the British East India Company.
Largest Library in India
The National Library in Kolkata is the largest library in India. It is an institution of National importance under the Department of Culture, Ministry of Tourism & Culture, Government of India. National Library is situated on a scenic 30 acres Belvedere Estate, in Kolkata. The library is designated to collect, disseminate and preserve the printed material produced in the country.
The origins of the National Library can be traced back to 1836 when the Calcutta Public Library was established. The then Governor General, Lord Metcalf transferred 4,675 volumes from the library of the College of Fort William to the Calcutta Public Library. In 1891, the Imperial Library was formed by combining a number of Secretariat libraries. Lord Curzon, the then Governor General of India, conceived the idea of opening a library for the use of the public. He amalgamated Calcutta Public Library with the Imperial Library. The library was formally opened to the public on 30th January 1903 at Metcalf Hall, Kolkata. After independence, the library was renamed as the National Library.
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Sri Shanmukhananda Hall in Mumbai is the largest auditorium in India. The hall has an interesting history. In 1943, a few music oriented minds of Mumbai such as Dr. Iyengar, Rao Saheb, Anantha Iyer, P R Sundaraja Iyengar, Srinivasa Iyer, S Seshadri and others joined hands to form a cultural organization called Krishna Gana Sabha. The Sabha used to organize regular music and dance festivals in Mumbai. In 1951, the late prime minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru while addressing one such gathering at Metro theatre, lamented at the lack of a large hall in Mumbai. In response to Panditji's call, a number of prominent music lovers came together and their efforts culminated in the birth of Shanmukhananda Fine Arts & Sangeetha Sabha in September 1952 at the Podar College Hall. In 1964 when the gigantic Shanmukhananda hall came up in Kings' Circle (Matunga), Pandit Nehru acclaimed the hall as the biggest in the east of Suez.
The Panvalnadi bridge on the Panval river in Ratnagiri District of Maharashtra is presently the tallest bridge in India. The tallest pier of the bridge is 64m above bed level and the length of the bridge is 424m. The bridge was built for Konkan Railway and was the first bridge built in India using the incremental launching technique. The bridge superstructure is a single-cell continuous prestressed concrete box girder with nine intermediate 40m spans and two end spans of 30m each. The substructure consists of hollow octagonal reinforced concrete piers resting on open foundations. In 1995, the bridge received the Most Outstanding Concrete Structure in India Award from the American Concrete Institute.
However, soon the bridge will lose its coveted title of being the tallest bridge in India. Konkan Railway is currently laying down railway line between Katra and Laole in Jammu & Kashmir. The railway line will have two bridges that would be taller than the Panvalnadi bridge. One will be over River Chenab with a height of 359m while the other will be over Anji Khad at a height of 189m.